High precision surveys and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) are basis for 3D design and modeling, an essential part of intelligent construction technologies. The LiDAR technology includes three different forms: airborne, terrestrial mobile, or terrestrial static. Airborne LiDAR makes uses of airplanes or drones equipped with laser scanners, GPS devices, and inertial measurement units (IMU) to enable accurate and detailed capturing of the 3D geometry of ground surfaces and objects via aerial surveys. The level of detail can be enhanced using a smaller beam width, multiple pulses in the air, and full waveform digitization.
Chang, J.C. et al. (2014) Considerations for Effective LiDAR Deployment by Transportation Agencies. Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2014 Paper No. 14-0256, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
CTC & Associates. (2010) LiDAR Applications for Transportation Agencies. Wisconsin Department of Transportation research report. February. Accessed January 24, 2014.
Florida Department of Transportation,“Terrestrial Mobile LiDAR Surveying and Mapping Guidelines,” Available at:
Florida Department of Transportation. (2013) Terrestrial Mobile LiDAR Surveying and Mapping Guidelines. Available at http://www.dot.state.fl.us/surveyingandmapping/ documentsandpubs/20131007_TML_Guidelines.pdf. October.
Gant, R. and Boivin, Y (2014). “Using Point Clouds to Improve Infrastructure Design,” SPAR International 2014 Conference, Colorado Springs, CO, April.
Hurwitz et al. (2013) Transportation Applications for Mobile LiDAR: A State-of-the-Practice Questionnaire. Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2013 Paper No. 13-1606, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
LIDAR USA, (2014) “Short Urban Roadway—Velodyne & FARO,” Available at . Accessed May 2014.
Miller, N. et al. (2012) A Comparison of Mobile Scanning to a Total Station Survey at the I-35 and IA 92 Interchange in Warren County, Iowa. Report No. RB22-011, Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames, IA, August.
Olsen, M.J. et al. (2013) Guidelines for the Use of Mobile LiDAR in Transportation Applications. NCHRP Report 748, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
Olsen, M.J. et al. (2013) Use of Advanced Geospatial Data, Tools, Technologies, and Information in Department of Transportation Projects. NCHRP Synthesis 446, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
Rönnäng, M. (2014) “Living in the Point Cloud,” SPAR International 2014 Conference, Colorado Springs, CO, April.
Russell, J.D. (2012) “Evaluating Mobile Scanning Data for use within a State DOT,” Be Together: The Bentley User Conference, Philadelphia, PA, May.
Searle, J. and Sridharan, R. (2014) “Evaluate Use of the UDOT Mapping Grade, LiDAR Point Cloud for Design Grade Survey,” SPAR International 2014 Conference, Colorado Springs, CO, April.
Williams, K. et al. (2013) “Synthesis of Transportation Applications of Mobile LiDAR,” Remote Sensing, Vol. 5, Issue 9, September.
Wright D. and Brinton, M. “Status of 3D Laser Scanning in ODOT,” ODOT 2009 Survey Conference, Available at http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/GEOMETRONICS/ docs/conference_handouts/2009/statusof3dlaserscanning.pdf. Accessed April 29, 2016.
Yen, K.S. et al. (2014) “Cost-Benefit Analysis of Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanning Applications for Highway Infrastructure,” Journal of Infrastructure Systems, Vol. 20, Issue 4.
Zodrow, S. (2011) “3D Scanning for Freeway Interchange Design,” Presentation at the 6th International Symposium on Visualization in Transportation, August 21. Available at http://teachamerica.com/VIZ11/VIZ1109Zodrow/index.htm. Accessed April 28, 2016.